Bürger*innenverfassung Islands

Meine Best of – Liste der von 25 politischen Laien verfasste Fassung der isländischen Verfassung. Das Wort Ombudsmann stammt übrigens auch aus dem Altnordischen/Altisländischen.  

Article 8.
Human dignity

All shall be guaranteed a right to life with dignity. Human diversity shall be respected in every way.

Article 13.
Right to property

(…) The right to property is subject to duties as well as limitations in accordance with law.

Article 14.
Right to having and expressing opinions

(…) Limits on the expression of opinion may, however, be stipulated by law to protect children, security, health, the rights or reputation of others, as necessary in a democratic society.
The public authorities shall guarantee the conditions for an open and informed discourse. The access to the Internet and information technology shall not be limited unless by a court verdict and subject to the same conditions as apply to the limits of the expression of opinion. (…)

Article 15.
Right to information

All persons shall be free to collect and disseminate information.
Public administration shall be transparent and shall preserve documentation, such as minutes of meetings, and shall register and document issues, their origin, record and final resolution. (…)
Information on the reasons and the time limits for secrecy shall be available for all documents under lawful secrecy.

Article 17.
Freedom of culture and academia

The freedom of science, academia and art shall be ensured by law.

Article 18.
Freedom of religion

(…) The freedom to pursue religion or personal convictions shall only be limited by law as necessary in a democratic society.

Article 23.
Health services

All shall have the right to mental and physical health to the highest standard possible.
All shall by law have the right to an accessible, appropriate and adequate health service.

Article 28.
Due process of law

(…) Anyone who is accused of a punishable offense shall be viewed as innocent until proven guilty.

Article 33.
Nature and environment of Iceland

Iceland’s nature constitutes the basis for life in the country. All shall respect and protect it.
All shall by law be accorded the right to a healthy environment, fresh water, unpolluted air and unspoiled nature. This means that the diversity of life and land must be maintained and nature’s objects of value, uninhabited areas, vegetation and soil shall enjoy protection. Earlier damages shall be repaired as possible.
The use of natural resources shall be such that their depletion will be minimised in the long term and that the right of nature and coming generations be respected.
The right of the public to travel in the country for lawful purposes with respect for nature and the environment shall be ensured by law.

Article 34.
Natural resources

Iceland’s natural resources that are not private property shall be the joint and perpetual property of the nation. No one can acquire the natural resources, or rights connected thereto, as property or for permanent use and they may not be sold or pledged. (…)
In the use of natural resources, sustainable development and public interest shall be used for guidance.
The public authorities, along with those using the natural resources, shall be responsible for their protection. The public authorities may, on the basis of law, issue permits for the use of natural resources or other limited public goods, against full payment and for a modest period of time in each instance. Such permits shall be issued on an equal-opportunity basis and it shall never lead to a right of ownership or irrevocable control of the natural resources.

Article 35.
Information on the environment and the parties concerned

The public authorities shall inform the public on the state of the environment and nature and the impact of construction thereon. The public authorities and others shall provide information on an imminent danger to nature, such as environmental pollution.
The law shall secure the right of the public to have the opportunity to participate in the preparation of decisions that have an impact on the environment and nature as well as the possibility to seek independent verdicts thereon.
In taking decisions regarding Iceland’s nature and environment, the public authorities shall base their decisions on the main principles of environmental law.

Article 88.
Registration of conflicts of interest and public duties

A minister is not permitted to perform other paid tasks while in office. The same applies to tasks for private companies and public agencies even if unpaid.
The duty of ministers to disclose information on their financial interests shall be laid down by law.